The agreement on the application of health and plant health measures is one of the last documents adopted at the end of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. It applies to all health measures (animal-related) and plant health measures (SPS) that may have a direct or indirect effect on international trade. The SPS agreement contains a number of agreements (trade disciplines) on how SPS measures are defined and applied by countries when they establish, revise or enforce their national laws and regulations. Countries agree to base their SPS standards on science and, to guide their actions, the agreement encourages countries to use the standards set by international standards bodies. The SPS agreement is intended to ensure that SPS measures do not arbitrarily or unfairly discriminate against trade with other members or are not used to conceal trade restrictions. In this SPS agreement, countries retain the sovereign right to guarantee the level of health protection they deem appropriate, but agree that this right is not hijacked for protectionist purposes and that there are no unnecessary trade barriers. The application of SPS measures is subject to a rule of equivalence and not equality. The multilateral agreement on merchandise trade includes the 1994 GATT (general agreement on tariffs and trade) and 13 sectoral agreements. These measures cover four areas: anti-dumping measures, such as measures. B specific tariffs on imports of “dumped” products into the EU, i.e. products exported to the EU at a price below their domestic price. These include limits on residue tolerance, limited use of substances, food safety labelling requirements, hygiene requirements and quarantine requirements.
The classification of non-tariff measures (NTM) developed in 2012 by the Multi-Agency Support Team (MAST), a working group of eight international organizations, is considered one of 16 chapters of non-tariff measures (NTM). In this classification, SPS measures are classified in Chapter A and “as measures to protect human or animal life from the risks associated with additives, contaminants, toxins or pathogens present in their food; Protecting human life from plant or animal diseases; Protect the lives of animals or plants from pests, diseases or disease-causing organisms Avoid or limit other damage to a country caused by the entry, production or spread of pests; and protect biodiversity.”  The Trade Facilitation Agreement aims to facilitate trade, release and customs clearance of goods, including goods in transit, through effective cooperation between customs and other relevant trade facilitation authorities.